Sex steroids – ELEOS
The ELEOS Medical Center is a multidisciplinary center based on a well-known diagnostic laboratory in St. Petersburg "RIAT", which for more than 10 years has been providing services to residents of the city in the field of early detection and prevention of a number of diseases.
Sex steroids are divided into three main groups:
1. C18 – estrogens with the main representatives – estradiol, estrone, estriol;
2.C19 – androgens with the main representative – testosterone;
3. C21 – gestagens with buy a course of steroids on the mass artyom usa side effects the main representative – progesterone.
In the female body, the most important sex steroids (i.e. estrogens, gestagens and androgens) are synthesized in the ovaries and adrenal cortex, and during pregnancy, the placenta. The principal sex steroids for the male body are androgens, which are synthesized in the testes, and in small quantities in the adrenal cortex. All sex steroids and adrenal hormones are cholesterol derivatives.
The most active estrogen in the human body is estradiol, followed by estrone and estriol. Estrogens are produced mainly by ovarian granulosa cells. The secretion of estrogen increases in response to the release of FSH from the pituitary gland.
The main representative of estrogens is estradiol, which has the highest biological activity. In the female body, estradiol is synthesized in the ovaries, membrane and granulosa cells of the follicles. At the onset of pregnancy, the massive production cycloferon for the prostate helped who treatment supplements of estrogen is carried out by the placenta. Other sites of estrogen synthesis, primarily postmenopausal estrone, include the adrenal cortex and peripheral adipose tissue
Serum estradiol is normal
Age Estradiol mg / ml
Children under 11 years old 5-21
follicular phase 5-53
ovulation phase 90-299
luteal phase 11-116
The target organs for estrogen in women are the uterus, vagina, vulva, fallopian (fallopian) tubes, and mammary glands. The hormones of this group are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and determine the characteristic physical and mental characteristics of women. Estrogens cause the epiphyseal growth points to close.
Diseases and conditions in which the concentration of estradiol changes
Uterine bleeding during menopause
Cirrhosis of the liver
Feminization in children
Taking gonadotropins, clomiphene, estrogens
Primary and secondary hypogonadism
Medications: stilbene, estrogens
Gestagens (progestational steroids) are produced in the ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex, and during pregnancy by the placenta. The action of gestagens is aimed at the normal reproductive function of the body. The main representative of this group of hormones is progesterone.
For progesterone to manifest its physiological effect in the female body, preliminary exposure to estrogens is required. The main target organ for progesterone is the uterus.
Serum progesterone is normal
Age Progesterone, μg / L
follicular phase 0.3-0.7
ovulation phase 0.7-1.6
luteal phase 4.7-18.0
period of menopause 0.06-1.3
16-18 weeks 20-80
28-30 weeks 55-155
prenatal period 110-250
Diseases and conditions in which the concentration of progesterone changes
Pregnancy Adrenal and testicular tumors
Medicines – progesterone, analogs
Ovarian lipid cell tumor
Chorionelitis of the ovary
Risk of miscarriage
Taking ampicillin, dinoprost, thromtacin,
estradiol, oral contraceptive
The main representatives of androgens in the female body are testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). In the body of men, the best when to take dianabol where do i get my main representatives of androgens are testosterone and dehydrotestosterone (DHT). In target organs (prostate, seminal vesicles and skin) testosterone acts as a prohormone; this means that testosterone, having reached the target organ, is converted into DHT, and only then does DHT exert its biological effect.
The content of testosterone in serum is normal: children before puberty – 0.06-0.2 μg / l; women – 0.1-1.1 mcg / l; men 20-39 years old – 2.6-11 μg / l, 40-55 years old – 2.0-6.0 μg / l, over 55 years old – 1.7-5.2 μg / l.
Testosterone is an androgenic hormone responsible for secondary sexual characteristics in men.
Diseases and conditions in which testosterone concentration changes
Men with XYY karyotype
Feminizing testicular syndrome
Premature puberty in boys
Tumors of the adrenal cortex
Extragonadal tumors in men, arrhenoblastoma
Medicines (barbiturates, clomiphene, estrogens, gonadotropin, oral contraceptives)
Primary and secondary hypogonadism
Taking androgens, dexamethasone, diethyl-stilbestrol, digoxin, ethanol, halothane
p-chorionic gonadotropin (p-hCG) in serum and urine
The concentration of p-hCG in serum natural arimidex and effects from reception what are the is normal in adults up to 5 IU / l; in urine during pregnancy 6 weeks – 13,000 IU / day, 8 weeks – 30,000 IU / day, 12-14 weeks – 105,000 IU / day, 16 weeks – 46,000 IU / day, more than 16 weeks – 5000-20,000 MED / day
Diseases and conditions in which the concentration of r-hCG changes
Monitoring of germ cell tumors (chorionepithelioma)
Malformations of the neural canal of the fetus, Down syndrome
in the embryo
Diagnostics of the purity of abortion
Decrease in concentration relative
phases of pregnancy indicates:
– ectopic pregnancy
– damage to the placenta during pregnancy
– threatened miscarriage